Essays

Essays history has a brief analytical review or explanatory, interpretative study of a historical topic or problem.


Common Essay Types:

  • The free essay – the author freely, on his own will, presents his opinion on a historical topic or question.
  • Argumented essay.

Essays for writing:

  • Extensive and profound knowledge.
  • Ability to analyze, select the necessary facts and arguments.
  • Ability to plan and logically organize the material.
  • Ability to make reasoned judgments and draw conclusions.
  • The reasoned essay is usually written when it is necessary to approve or deny a statement.

The statement can:

  • Reasonably agree;
  • Reasonably disagree;
  • Develop the problem further.

You have to defend your chosen position with 3 arguments. Each argument should be based on at least 3 sentences: in the first sentence, the argument should be named, the second and third should be endorsed. In conclusion, the conclusion must be drawn from the thoughts of all 3 arguments.

Reasonably agreeing:

  • You should justify the statement with your own knowledge, experience, facts, scientific opinions.
  • Possible counter-arguments should be rejected.
  • Reasonably disagreeing:
  • The credibility of the claim must be called into question by the counter-arguments.
  • The statement can be accepted, but its limitations must be pointed out.
  • It is necessary to analyze the statement by linking it to scientific knowledge, facts.
  • Developing the problem below:
  • Additional aspects to be addressed should be specified.
  • It should be pointed out that the statement does not comply with the logic requirements, certain regularities.

Typical arguments:

Fact arguments. Fact – a true, unintelligible incident, an event, an experience gained in experience that corresponds to reality. The thesis is substantiated by logically linking it to an indisputable fact. If one uses only one case, this argument is not convincing.
Authoritative argument. The thesis is based on a well-established, widely accepted authority that has expressed a similar or exactly similar opinion.

Normative argument. Normative – one that determines the norm, the standard, the principle or the law. The thesis is substantiated by logically linking it to a general or widely accepted scale of values (norms).
Analogous argument. Analogy – a form of conclusion where the similarity of the two features of the two subjects leads to the conclusion that the other features of these subjects are similar. The thesis is substantiated by choosing an example from another area of life.

Indirect argument. Indirect – one that works or manifests itself in a hidden, invisible way. The thesis is substantiated by trying to prove that the opposing views are erroneous, unrealistic, etc. By using indirect arguments, it seems at first that the thesis is justified, but it is not justified logically and convincingly.

Essay Structure:

Introduction (a brief statement that the truth must be proved), paragraph 1. Formulate key questions or problems, outline the main hypothesis, scope and sequence of arguments. Poor introduction destroys any interest in the job, but good attracts attention.

Discussion (outline of statements, evidence and examples) (eg paragraph 3). You need to combine narration with analysis, showing your ability to think and draw conclusions independently. If quotes are used, they should be short and relevant to the topic, also note from which source they were taken. Quotes usually represent a question but rarely prove it. The judgment is based on evidence. Write short and clear, avoid unnecessary generalization. Don’t use jargon, conversational expressions. Observe spelling.


Conclusion (summary of conclusions and conclusions proving the statement made in the introduction). Give a clear answer to the essay question. Conclusions, summary should be made.

Essay Evaluation Criteria:

  • Content – concrete, compelling, relevant, creative, understandable
  • Opinion – clear, consistent
  • Essay layout – logical, coherent, united, fit for purpose, directed to conclusions
  • Layout layout – Structure of different paragraphs, deviations
  • Style – interesting, imaginative, expression consistent with content
  • Structure of sentences – logical, complete, skilful use of different sentence structures (parallelism, contrast, repetition, calls)

Lexic – appropriate for the topic, language – accurate, lively, figurative
Grammar – observance of grammar laws (punctuation, spelling of words).

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